Superconductive Electromagnetic Engine

### The basic structure of the electromagnetic engine

It is an apparatus which is a magnet on a magnet

One magnet is piling up another magnet and the former is fixed to the latter.

One magnet is a superconductive magnet.

Another magnet is a normal conductive electromagnet.

But, this normal conductive electromagnet is making a coil and passed a ripple current of low voltage and very high frequency.

Since piling up a magnet on a magnet, the repulsion or the attraction (both are electromagnetic forces) would arise between the magnets.

However, the repulsion or the attraction to act on the superconductive magnet is canceled for this special structure.

Therefore, only the repulsion or the attraction to act on the normal conductive magnet remains and can be used as a driving force.

This driving force also can be used as a flotage, a braking force, a turn force and so on.

### The basic theory

#### Section 1 Bose Einstein condensation and the permanent current

As for the superconductive condition, it is possible to assume that Bose Einstein condensation is formed. It is thought that the motion of center of gravity of each Cooper pair which composes a permanent current is in the orderly condition which has momentum with a same size like the motion of center of gravity of each atom which forms Bose Einstein condensation. An electron is a fermion and follows Pauli's principle. However, a Cooper pair is supposed to be a kind of Bose particle and to be able to get condensed to a same momentum. This condensation of electron pairs secure the full conductivity of electric resistance zero when becoming a superconductive condition. Let's think of the momentum of a Cooper pair which composes a permanent current in the direction through which the permanent current making a strong magnetic field of a superconductive magnet flows (hereinafter, abbreviate with " the direction of electric current "). The motion of Cooper pairs in this direction of electric current is the substance of the permanent current. Because of the antiparallel motion of super electrons of Cooper pairs, the momentums of two super electrons which compose a Cooper pair in the ground state are supposed to be P and - P. The momentum of a super electron by adding voltage to the Cooper pair is Q. This Cooper pair has a momentum 2Q. This 2Q convey the permanent current.

(P+Q)+(-P+Q)=2Q

It is supposed that a magnetic field is given to this permanent current. According to the Fleming's left hand rule, with an outer magnetic field, Lorentz force arises in the direction perpendicular to the direction through which the electric current flows (hereinafter, abbreviate with " the direction of electromagnetic force "). Lorentz force by this magnetic field acts on the permanent current and the momentums of super electrons change. The strength of Lorentz force is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field and the strength of the permanent current. The change of momentum of the super electron which has momentum P is supposed to be ?P. Then, the change of momentum of the super electron which has momentum -P is supposed to be -?P. Since the direction of momentum P and - P is opposite, the directions of Lorentz force acting on super electrons become opposite. Then, the change of momentum Q is supposed to be R. The momentum of the Cooper pair in this case becomes 2Q+2R.

(P+?P+Q+R)+(-P-?P+Q+R)=2Q+2R

Since the change of momentum P and - P has been canceled by the antiparallel motion of super electrons, Lorentz force to change P and - P is canceled as the whole Cooper pair. However, it is thought that the change of momentum Q remains and that this acts on the superconductive coil as electromagnetic force. Then, to form the condensation of electron pairs, 2Q+2R of each electron pair must have a same size. Therefore, it is thought that momentum order is effective in both the direction of electric current and the direction of electromagnetic force. Momentum order is that the momentum of Cooper pairs change from a same momentum into the other same momentum and that all pairs change all together when changing.